do koalas have syphilis

Or that women can have different heart attack symptoms? These germs can easily spread to their bodies, habitats, toys, bedding, and anything in the area where they live. Examples of transmissible bird diseases associated with pigeons, geese, starling and house sparrows: Histoplasmosis is a respiratory disease that may be fatal. They also carry no diseases communicable to humans, they do not smell and they are extremely clean. Koala chlamydia — a sexually transmitted disease with symptoms ranging from infertility and blindness to excruciating urinary tract infections and kidney failure — is now at epidemic levels, with some wild populations in Queensland having a 100 per cent infection rate. An infected pet can, in turn, infect humans. Not only the wildlife, a potential chlamydia vaccine for koalas could also open doors to finding one for humans, as well. New … Their hospital alone treated 300 koalas for chlamydia. Some were quick to comment that on Koala Yoda's malnourished state. A wombat, a koala and a rabbit in a burrow. The … Hepatitis B and C. Both of these viruses, but especially Hep B, can come from a bite. Because it thinks that if it's not attached to a tree then it can't possibly be food. Squirrels may carry the infection from one yard to another when they run through infected soil and carry it on their feet. And it can be spread to humans. isitbullshit: all koalas have syphilis. Parvo can live for a short while outside of the body. By "other problems" Nilsson means a stunning and slightly uncomfortable reality threatening koalas: chlamydia, a sexually transmitted disease. Thus, leptospirosis is transmitted by the urine of an infected animal and is contagious as long as the urine is still moist. When such animals are born, their intestines are sterile and do not contain these bacteria. Last month, a 6-year-old koala named Jack arrived at the Friends of the Koala facility where he was being treated for swollen eyes. Top 18 Best Weight Loss Pills For Women In 2020, 9 Amazing Facts About Protein Coffee and How It Can Change Your Life. Health officials say they may have found the cause of 132 salmonella infections: A species of lizard called bearded dragon, which are sometimes kept as pets in the U.S. Salmonella Cotham is a rare strain of the bacteria, and in some instances it is antibiotic resistant. It results from a fungus growing in dried bird droppings. Equipment commonly carried on the belt includes: handcuff, radios, baton, hand-held protection devices such as pepper spray, firearms and ammunition, taser, flashlights, batteries, gloves, pens, pencils, keys, multi-tool, window punch etc. Chlamydia, a type of sexually transmitted disease also found in humans, has hit wild koalas hard, with some wild populations seeing a 100 percent infection rate. Adult koalas are simply called koalas. 2. Pottering around in the dark, a wombat, briefly emerges from its burrow before heading back inside. STDs in animals and humans have a historical relationship. A different strain infects koalas, but it too can be spread sexually, and it's causing a devastating epidemic. New skeletal evidence suggests Columbus and his crew not only introduced the Old World to the New World, but brought back syphilis as well, researchers say. The Koala is the only mammal, other than the Greater Glider and Ringtail Possum, which can survive on a diet of eucalyptus leaves. The leaves used to provide enough water for the koalas that they didn't need to drink in addition. Mouse diseases, however, can also be spread indirectly: ticks, fleas and mites that have fed, at some point, on the infected mouse and then transmit that infection to humans. Chlamydiaceae bacteria can cause acute or chronic disease in the eyes, lungs, genital track and intestines. “Pathogens that we already know can be carried by worms include E. coli O157 and salmonella. This myth possibly arose as a way of explaining why Koalas sleep for up to 22 hours a day. "Virtually nothing is known about the immune system of the koala and the absence of information has been a major hindrance to our efforts to understand how Chlamydia and KoRV infections lead to such debilitating disease in this native species," said Adam Polkinghorne, co-author of the study from the school of biomedical sciences, in a press release. Prions—the infectious proteins that cause illnesses such as mad cow disease, scrapie, chronic wasting disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease—can pass through the digestive systems of crows, new research published in PLoS One finds. Do you leave water out all day for puppies? Baylisascaris procyonis: (Bay-lis-asc-aris) The Raccoon Ascarid or roundworm is a parasite of the intestines of raccoons that sheds large numbers of eggs in the feces. Armadillos are one of the only known animals to carry leprosy. Syphilis is a human disease. Not long after, a koala, that would spend most of its time in trees, wanders out of the same burrow. The most common worm is roundworms. Turtles, frogs, iguanas, snakes, geckos, horned toads, salamanders and chameleons are colorful, quiet and often kept as pets. Usually between 18 to 22 hours. 69. It's possible a svelte brain saves the koala energy, which it has little to spare because of its nutrient-poor diet. Leprosy was in the news too; not because of a sick dog or cat, but because of armadillos. Affected animals develop nodules in and under the skin associated with acid-fast bacteria in the cells (3). Sadly, Henry probably passed on his syphilis to all his kids – his son and heir, King Edward VI, almost certainly died young from inherited syphilis – but hey, at least none of them were caught by paparazzi with their asses hanging out. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease in people, but when it claimed the lives of many koalas in Australia, no one ever knew it could have taken a deadly toll. report. Raccoons are one of the most common species to carry rabies. Here are five diseases than can be spread from bites: Infections. If you notice a sore on your genitals or you’re showing any other signs of syphilis, get checked out by a nurse or doctor. In fact, rats and mice are known to spread more than 35 diseases. Koalas eat mainly eucalyptus leaves (gum leaves). The most recent, as well as the deadliest, STD to migrate to humans is HIV, which hunters acquired from the blood of chimpanzees, says Aguirre. Salmonella can spread by either direct or indirect contact with amphibians (e.g., frogs), reptiles (e.g., turtles, lizards or snakes) or their droppings. Some of the more common include tularemia, typhus, plague, and ringworm. Dogs are the primary pet infected, but other wild canids such as coyotes can carry the virus. Salmonella. When your puppy squirms when you pick him up, it's not just because he's being a wiggly puppy. Small, young pythons may be attacked and eaten by a variety of birds, wild dogs and hyenas, large frogs, large insects and spiders, and even other snakes. Koalas cannot carry tuberculosis. Do dogs carry the virus syphilis? Chlamydia ravages through the once robust population of koalas in Australia. The most common STI among animals today is Brucellosis or undulant fever present in domestic livestock, dogs, cats, deer and rats. Syphilis is spread through vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Syphilis is extremely serious for babies. Chlamydia, a type of sexually transmitted disease also found in humans, has hit wild koalas hard, with some wild populations seeing a 100 percent infection rate. The marsupials are known for their active sex lives, and as many as 50 percent of the koalas treated at the university have shown signs of the sexually transmitted disease. The eggs can remain infectious for years. They sleep a lot to conserve energy as their diet requires a lot of energy to digest. You can get syphilis when your mouth, genitals, or another part of your body touches a syphilis sore on a person who has the disease. heard this somewhere not sure if its true. 1 0. butor. Can you have a black footed ferret as a pet? syphilis THE FACTS • Syphilis (SI fi lis) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Or what to do if you find the critters? People can and do get Salmonella from iguanas. However, other animals and humans can pass the virus onto dogs. Then you should know that scientists are exploring a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas, which can rapidly turn into a breakthrough in vaccinating humans. Fortunately, tetanus is relatively rare in dogs. In some parts of Australia, koala infection rates are as high as 90%. They are also quite smart, according to a new study that has tracked the movements of the Australian animal in suburban Brisbane. Now, scientists from the University of the Sunshine Coast have begun to crack Chlamydia’s code, shedding more light on exactly how Chlamydia pecorum and its associated disease have changed over time to have such catastrophic impacts for livestock and koalas alike. She may want to play with it, because she views the object as a toy. Also, did you know that, besides primates, koalas are the only animals that leave fingerprints? Yes, mostly Koalas do smell like cough drops or certainly a pleasant eucalyptus smell. The disease arises from the bacteria Clostridium tetani, which is introduced into the body via wounds. Rothschild believes that Columbus and his crew contracted syphilis and caused a documented outbreak in Europe on their return. Tests used to screen for syphilis include: Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test. Yes: Dogs can get tetanus. Syphilis is a really common STD. They have sharp teeth and claws capable of causing deep wounds and any dog that attacks a koala may risk serious injury," the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection states on its website. Thanks to an increase in pet vaccinations, wildlife now account for more than 90 percent of all reported rabies cases. There are numerous reports of salmonellosis from pet iguanas, including fatal infections. Most of the animal kingdom never practices safe sex, and they have the battle scars to prove it. It can infect many animals; for example, it can be in the meat we eat, the birds and mice cats eat, and it can infect cats themselves. Juvenile males are more likely to give off a very slight eucalyptus smell. Heartworms are only spread by the bite of a mosquito and cannot be passed directly from one dog to another. However, what many people do not know is that STDs actually occur in animals, too. But, no, you couldn't get him a tetanus vaccine even if you wanted to. Koalas, which normally spend most of their time in the safety of eucalyptus trees, have begun to climb down and drink from artificial water stations provided by University of Sydney researchers. Dental Hygiene Month is almost over, but we’re back with tips for keeping your mouth healthy at home. A koala's brain is smaller, when compared to its body, than other marsupial brains: about 0.2% of its body weight. chickens can't get parvo. Koalas - smarter than your average bear. Mouse diseases. No. Lv 4. Transfer occurs when fleas from the rats bite human beings. These bacteria can cause severe gastrointestinal infections in humans and are commonly found in soil. He believes syphilis originated in the New World, perhaps as a result of a mutation in the bacterium that causes yaws. Fleas can carry tapeworm eggs and your cat could accidentally eat such a flea while grooming his itchy skin. Koalas are so stupid that if you take a few eucalyptus leaves and put them on a plate in front of a koala it won't eat them. Match making apps such as Tinder have accumulated 50 million users since 2012 and now match 15 million people a day while Grinder, focussing on homosexual men, has 6 million users making 10,000 matche… Today the natural predators of the Koala do not make a significant impact on wild populations. Have syphilis I do,' posted jimbris. Early symptoms include urinary tract infections and involuntarily bowel excretion. What can you do for a dog with a bloated stomach. Eucalyptus is poisonous to most animals. Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. Still not interested? So far, tests of the koala vaccine have brought encouraging results: Eighteen females treated with … Their food which is Eucalyptus leaves offers little nutrition. Archived. Apple picking could be a good outing to take this fall, as it lends itself to social distancing. They prefer humans as a food source, but not because humans are easier to bite. • The first symptom is a painless, round, and red sore that can appear anywhere you’ve had sex. Disclaimer: I'm an animal lover. They spend their lives very much like koalas on the outside do: dozing in eucalyptus trees and occasionally gnawing on a few leaves before falling asleep again. Dolphins are considered sentinel species that can herald health threats to humans, biologists say. Has the Real Power of Solar Energy Arrived? Dying because of starvation is almost the natural mortality reason for the Koalas, if the Koalas do not get the victims of any other predators such as Eagles, Dingoes and wolves etc. Like all STDs, the only way to know is to get tested. The employer as part of a benefits package may pay for coverage for employed veterinarians. Now try to sleep tonight. It's typically spread by direct contact. The diseases are spread to humans directly: through contact with mice feces, saliva or urine, mouse bites and mere contact. The first sign of syphilis is a small sore, called a chancre (SHANG-kur). Creative Commons. Rapid immunochromatographic test. Syphilis is caused by bacteria, not a virus, so it is impossible for any organism to be infected by a syphilis virus. No. Hedgehogs can carry Salmonella germs in their droppings while appearing healthy and clean. The adult form of the parasite is found only in rodents. You’d be surprised to hear this, but even animals get STDs! Sadly, yes. A different strain infects koalas, but it too can be spread sexually, and it's causing a devastating epidemic. There is a common misconception that Koalas get 'drugged out' or 'high' on eucalyptus leaves and that's why they sleep a lot. O. Koalas only eat gum leaves – that part is true – but the leaves don't cause them to get drunk or high. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease in people, but when it claimed the lives of many koalas in Australia, no one ever knew it could have taken a deadly toll. Birds, snakes, and fish are not mammals, so they can´t get rabies and they can´t give it to you. We distinguished major established zoonotic infections, such as salmonellosis or ringworm, from other less common or potential zoonoses carried by hedgehogs. The doctors administered antibiotics and surgically trimmed his eyes so he could recover. The infectious bacteria usually aren't fatal, but they can severely impact a koala's health. In some parts of Australia, koala infection rates are as high as 90%. The RPR test also finds syphilis antibodies. The most common sexually transmitted disease among animals today is brucellosis, or undulant fever, which is common among domestic livestock and occurs in mammals including dogs, goats, deer, and rats. But parvo is a strong virus that can stay alive on surfaces for years, infecting other dogs that come along later. Pangolins themselves are not known to carry any viruses which can infect humans, but they do carry parasites in their scales like ticks which can spread vector-borne diseases. In both regions the koala was added to the list of threatened species in 2012. A different strain infects koalas, but it too can be spread sexually, and it's causing a devastating epidemic. Small rodents like squirrels, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, chipmunks, rats, and mice) and lagomorphs including rabbits and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to transmit rabies to humans. Koalas are having problems with the STD called chlamydia. Fortunately, tetanus is relatively rare in dogs. Untreated syphilis can be fatal.Syphilis is a life threatening STD. Eucalyptus leaves are very fibrous and low in nutrition, and to most animals are extremely poisonous. No. A different strain infects koalas, but it too can be spread sexually, and it's causing a devastating epidemic. Not only do rabbits fuck like rabbits, they carry syphilis as if they were all truck-stop hookers. save. Squirrels are known to carry numerous diseases, though only a few are dangerous to humans. During 2018, there were 115,045 reported new diagnoses of syphilis (all stages), compared to 38,739 estimated new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2017 and 583,405 cases of gonorrhea in 2018. Earlier this month, researchers from Queensland University of Technology mapped the koala's genome, and uncovered 12,000 out 20,000 genes. As you can see above animals (including dogs) can get E. coli from eating food infected with this bacteria. Posted by 10 months ago. But, no, you couldn't get him a tetanus vaccine even if you wanted to. If we can stop the trade of pangolins, we can cut off the illegal trade of other animals as well. These include Ebola virus, SARS, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. How do I know if I have syphilis? Rodents, such as rats, mice, prairie dogs and rabbits, are associated with a number of health risks. Is syphilis fatal? They can carry many diseases including hantavirus, leptospirosis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV), Tularemia and Salmonella. Prions—the infectious proteins that cause illnesses such as mad cow disease, scrapie, chronic wasting disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease—can pass through the digestive systems of crows, new research published in PLoS One finds. The northeast state of Queensland in Australia once had a booming koala population. 8 comments. To the dismay of many, no, they don't always like it. “We can do something in koalas you could never do in humans,” Dr. Timms said. Rodents such as mice, rats, gophers, moles, chipmunks, prairie dogs, and rabbits do not carry rabies. In people, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. Many famous historical figures, including Charles VIII of France, Christopher Columbus, Hernán Cortés of Spain, Benito Mussolini, and Ivan the Terrible, were often alleged to have had syphilis or other sexually transmitted infections. Parvovirus affects mainly puppies and younger dogs. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Landing the Big Fish of Body Health, Itchy Heads: It's National Head Lice Prevention Month, Gaming with Friends Can Combat Loneliness, That Rush You Get Hearing a Favorite Tune Is Real, Love Social Media? Queensland, NSW, Victoria and South Australia are the only states where Koalas are found naturally in the wild. They live in the tall eucalypt forests and low eucalypt woodlands of mainland eastern Australia, and on some islands off the southern and eastern coasts. Diseases carried by rodents can also be spread to humans indirectly, through fleas, ticks, or mites that have fed on an infected rodent. Instead, the leaves have low nutritious value, with high fibre content, making them very slow to digest. Syphilis is serious — but it can be cured. You have to assume that every iguana is carrying Salmonella. “Dirty tail is actually really awful," says Wilson. The sore appears at the spot where the bacteria entered your body. The koala cub stays in the mother's pouch for 5 months. Syphilis spreads from person to person via skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores.After the initial infection, the syphilis bacteria can remain inactive (dormant) in your body for decades before becoming active again. And not only do animals and humans have STIs, but some of these diseases might share a common history explains Alonso Aguire, a vet and president for conservation medicine at the US Wildlife Trust. Toxoplasmosis is spread by a tiny parasite called Toxoplasma gondii that can be found almost everywhere. hide. They do rest a lot, but it's not due to a hangover! This stage usually starts with a rash on one or more areas of your body. These animals frequently carry bacteria called Salmonella that can cause serious illness in people. In people, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. Another disease researchers could tackle is the koala retrovirus, or KoRV, which is likened to HIV. Weil's Disease (Leptospirosis) Weil's disease is a form of a bacterial infection also known as Leptospirosis that is carried by animals, most commonly in rats and cattle. Small mammals such as squirrels, rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, chipmunks, rabbits, and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to cause rabies among humans in the United States. What’s worse, dolphins don’t have arms and thus can’t use those canister thingies where you freeze off your genital warts right before a hot date. These animals frequently carry bacteria called Salmonella that can cause serious illness in people. Infected rats pass larvae of the parasite in their feces. Not all koalas have it, but there is an outbreak. However, employed veterinarians are not protected by the owner's policy. Pythons have one more bone in their head than boas do and some additional teeth. Those prehistoric-looking armored mammals carry the leprosy bacteria, Mycobacterium leprae. This project will hopfeully help scientists to find an effective vaccine that could put an end to the mounting infection rates and death toll. 75% Upvoted. Some furry facts. This slideshow shares some information you might find helpful. Rodents can carry other diseases (such as plague). The research might have a potential for human vaccines against chlamydia, however as there is only 10% similarity between the koala and the human chlamydia, we can't be sure. Yes. You Could Scroll into Trouble. Koalas can only live in bushland where their favourite trees are growing, and they will only eat a few of the hundreds of species of eucalypts which grow in Australia. Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum bacteria, and is usually curable nowadays with antibiotics. “We can do something in koalas you could never do in humans,” Timms says. Bird fleas often feed on squirrels; and squirrel fleas feed on birds — and have been known to bite people, too. Amazon, Amazon Prime, the Amazon logo and Amazon Prime logo are trademarks of Amazon.com, Inc. or its affiliates. In some parts of Australia, koala infection rates are as high as 90%. At what age should you neuter a large breed dog? Koalas, wombats and Tasmanian devils all share the three-vagina structure. Can you get syphilis other than sexually? No. Unlike dogs, there are no human-made breeds of spiders. She's checking her bladder for symptoms of chlamydia. A different strain infects koalas, but it too can be spread sexually, and it's causing a devastating epidemic. The diseases are spread to humans directly: through contact with mice feces, saliva or urine, mouse bites and mere contact. And people cannot get heartworms from their pets. Fur or hair has nothing to do with it. Atlantic bottlenose dolphins can get genital warts, baboons suffer from herpes and syphilis is common in rabbits. 2. It is not only possible for dogs to get E. coli , but because of the different trash that dogs eat, and the unclean environments some dogs may live in or are born into, E. coli in dogs and puppies is not rare. In people, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. Although Leptospira has been detected in reptiles and birds, only mammals are able to transmit the bacterium to humans and other animals. The disease starts as a painless sore — typically on your genitals, rectum or mouth. There’s nothing fishy about the benefits of omega-3s. 4 years ago. Dogs and cats that are currently vaccinated are kept under observation for 45 days. Koala Syphilis. Pets won't catch or spread human viruses. IIV-6. Chlamydia not syphilis. Koalas Find them in the forks. There is no alcohol in eucalyptus to intoxicate them. Feral animals are another threat Koalas have had to face since European settlement. You can’t tell for sure if you have syphilis just by the way you feel. Clothing, shoes and children's toys are favorite items for canine kleptomaniacs. Symptoms such as diarrhea, ruffled feathers, and lethargy usually occur. Best Answer. Did You Know These 9 Facts About Heart Attacks? In people, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. But even the most hard-boiled cynic can't withstand the cuddle of a koala. There are disease concerns with both wild (rats, mice) and pet (rats, mice, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs) rodents and rabbits. In people, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease. isitbullshit: all koalas have syphilis. The chancre usually develops about three weeks after exposure. Mature males tend to have a stronger odour because of their scent gland and it can be a strong musky odour than eucalyptus. However, koalas are not drunk or high on eucalyptus! Parvovirus can affect dogs, wolves and foxes. Koalas may live from 13 to 18 years in the wild. It's the carbon dioxide signature that is more attractive to them. One of the most historically dangerous rat-borne diseases is the bubonic plague, also called “Black Plague,” and its variants. Syphilis also came to humans from cattle or sheep many centuries ago, possibly sexually." It can also infect humans. Early syphilis can be cured, sometimes with a single shot (injection) of penicillin. They include goannas dingoes, powerful owls, wedge-tailed eagles, and pythons, all of which are most likely to prey upon juvenile Koalas. Scientists have discovered that the beloved koala bear may be the least intelligent mammal on the planet. Koalas can make other sounds, from snores to screams. Cases of sexually transmitted diseases grow within the minute, with over 19 millionnew infected patients yearly in the US. In addition, the population is declining because most females are becoming infertile because of the disease. The eggs pass out in the cat's faeces, and other cats can pick up worm larvae from this. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. Fleas can carry and transmit several potential illnesses of importance to humans, including typhus and plague, and can transmit “cat scratch disease” (infection with Bartonella) among cats who can then spread the disease to humans. It can be caught by humans through contact with rat or cattle urine, most commonly occurring through contaminated fresh water. The koalas have white on the underside and gray on the rest of its body. Some surveys of koala populations in Queensland have suggested at least half of wild koalas are infected with the disease — possibly even more. Squirrels rarely carry rabies. Small mammals such as squirrels, rats, mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, chipmunks, rabbits, and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to cause rabies among humans in the United States. - Koalas do not live in rainforests or desert areas. The Koala's unusually large, leathery nose is one of its most noticeable features. Bat-borne viruses are transmitted via bat bite and transfer via saliva, as well as aerosolization of saliva, feces, and/or urine. In the United States today, about 93 of every 100 reported cases of rabies are in wild animals. Even somebody who pets the dog or cat after you is unlikely to catch your virus that way, and "you can't get a cold or the flu from your dog or cat," Schaffner said. A different strain infects koalas, but it too can be spread sexually, and it's causing a devastating epidemic. Some other common wild animals that may have rabies are skunks, coyotes, bats, and foxes. Bed bugs will feed on cats, dogs, birds or other animals when a human host is not present. You can. The rash can show up when your primary sore is healing or several weeks after the sore has healed. © 2020 Medical Daily LLC. Do koalas carry syphilis? Medical Daily is for informational purposes and should not be considered medical advice, diagnosis or treatment recommendation. Some dogs steal because they long for your attention. If you are pregnant, you can pass syphilis on to your baby even if you don't know you are infected. Salmonella outbreak linked to bearded dragons. Over the next decade, the International Energy Agency expects renewable energy to account for 80% of the world's power consumption. Videos are often thought of as being a waste of time, but there may be some benefits to online gaming, such as social connections to combat loneliness. The rash can look like rough, red, or reddish brown spots on the palms of your hands and/or the bottoms of your feet. There is a common misconception that Koalas get 'drugged out' or 'high' on eucalyptus leaves and that's why they sleep a lot. • Many people who have syphilis don’t know it. How many hours do Koalas sleep each day? Did you know that a heart attack isn't the same thing as a cardiac arrest? Syphilis causes sores on your genitals (called chancres). HIV. Koalas are struck by a different strain of the disease from that which affects humans – although it seems humans can catch the koala version through exposure to an infected animal’s urine… But experts are reporting the disease has reduced the number of koalas from 60,000 to 11,000 from 1990 to 2012. (Cats often choose gardens as their litter boxes.). The most common disease of feeder birds, Salmonellosis is caused by bacteria from the genus Salmonella and often begins as an intestinal-tract infection. Most bites from pets are from dogs or cats. Do koalas get drunk on eucalyptus leaves? While female koalas usually live this long, males may die sooner because of their more hazardous lives.

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